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But the Soviet Union provided arms and political support to many liberation struggles against colonial powers. Nasser did this after telling John Foster Dulles he would not join the Baghdad Pact (which eventually became CENTO). The Pact emerged at the same time as NATO and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and attempted to surround the Soviet Union with a series of pro-Western military organizations. Baghdad Pact. Its charismatic and articulate leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, had refused to join the Baghdad Pact when invited by Foster Dulles. The Baghdad Pact emerged from the 1955 Iraq-Turkey Treaty and bound those two states together with Great Britain, Iran, and Pakistan. Nasser had opposed the Baghdad Pact, and his successful effort to prevent Jordan from joining the pact is an example of his pragmatic diplomatic strategy. The 1955 Baghdad pact, signed by the British government, had also angered Nasser. I thought, "Whoever was the Secretary of State at the time to have made such a mess of it all. In the mid-1950s, the US was trying to form an alliance called the Baghdad Pact, to contain the Soviets from spreading into the Middle East. USA POSITION during Suez Canal Crisis USSR POSITION during Suez Canal Crisis British formed anti-soviet pact in Middle East, 1955 Baghdad Pact with Turkey and Iran, trying to convince Iraq to join as well Iraq being an Arab state, Nasser refused to let it join because he saw it as an instrument of western intervention, seducing other Arab nations join, thus isolating Egypt Iraqi membership in the Baghdad Pact was perhaps one of the reasons why the Government of Iraq was overthrown so easily. Q7: Why did Britain and France oppose nationalization? United Arab Republic (U.A.R. Instead, Nasser feared Eisenhower and Dulles’ “Northern Tier” strategy, later named the Baghdad Pact. The agreement with Britain on the bases, and especially the apparent American offer of support once it was completed, appeared to hold out what Nasser … However, President Eisenhower remained unresponsive; America's closest ally in the region, Saudi Arabia, was just as fundamentally opposed to the Hashemite-dominated Baghdad Pact as Egypt, and the U.S. was keen to increase its own influence in the region. Gamel Abdel Nasser of Egypt did not. He told Dulles he could not join any organization that included the United Kingdom as a silent partner, since they were the largest colonial empire in the world. Since the Suez Crisis of 1956, the preeminent question for US policy in the Middle East had been how to deal with Nasser and, in a broader sense, what secular Arab nationalism actually represented. He associated it with Western imperialism. Secretary Dulles said that the meeting in London of the so-called Baghdad Pact countries began informally on Sunday 6 and lasted through Tuesday. This military alliance would eventually include Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, and Iran, and Washington hoped the arrangement would halt Soviet expansion into the Middle East. Q6: Why did Nasser want to nationalize the Suez Canal Company? John Foster Dulles (1888-1959) As I found out in writing about Iraq and Baghdad I saw that the Baghdad Pact was brought about by the USA in 1955 which caused Egypt's Nasser to be very angry and he then turned to the Russians for aid. It financed and helped to build the high ham in Aswan. The way to improved Soviet-Egyptian relations had been prepared by Nasser’s refusal to join the Baghdad Pact (the Middle East Treaty Organization, later known as the Central Treaty Organization), which had been formed earlier that year by Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom, with the support of the United States, to counter the threat of Soviet expansion in the Middle East. In an attempt to strengthen security in the Middle East against Soviet influence, Britain, Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Pakistan signed a treaty known as the Baghdad Pact in 1955. For this reason, Nasser opposed the creation of the USA-backed Baghdad Pact based on diplomatic and military alliance against the Soviet Bloc and managed to prevent the participation in it of Syria and Jordan as Nasser conceived of this pact as a penetration of imperialist power into the Middle Eastern policy. He decided that Nasser was an over-powerful soviet ‘puppet’ and therefore, together with the UK, America designed a combination of measures designed to weaken the Egyptian premier’s position (Young et al., 2004: 263). Britain was eager to tame Nasser and looked towards the United States for support. Nasser’s refusal to accept the regional defence pact agreed in Baghdad caused US president Eisenhower to worry about Egypt’s intentions. Nasser had opposed the Baghdad Pact, and his successful effort to prevent Jordan from joining the pact is an example of his pragmatic diplomatic strategy. [Note: The Baghdad Pact (at right) was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran and was designed to be similar to NATO in preventing the spread of communism and fostering peace in the Middle East. Why did many Marxists in the era of decolonization consider Nasser’s Egypt and ... urging them to reject the Anglo-American sponsored anti-Soviet Baghdad Pact. Egypt continued to use the name United Arab Republic … As noted, the Shah joined. Part of Nasser's opposition to the Baghdad Pact lay in the delivery of British arms to Iraq at a time when Egypt's own armoury was in dire need of modernization. He told the Secretary of State that he could not join any anti-communist alliance that included Great Britain as a partner or silent partner, since they had been the world’s greatest colonizer for decades. Nasser … However, President Eisenhower remained unresponsive; America's closest ally in the region, Saudi Arabia, was just as fundamentally opposed to the Hashemite-dominated Baghdad Pact as Egypt, and the U.S. was keen to increase its own influence in the region. On the one hand were those nations abiding by the Baghdad Pact, rejecting Soviet relations and Arab nationalism, while simultaneously embracing US aid and alliance. It was one of the reasons why the USA pulled out of the Aswan Dam deal, which led to the Suez Crisis of 1956, which led to Nasser going to the Russians for co-financing of Aswan. Nasser's pragmatism towards Jordan meant that he aimed to force the Jordan regime to decline to join the pact, but he did … It wanted Egypt to join the Baghdad Pact directed against the Soviet Union. Nasser infuriated the French government by refusing to call for an end to the uprising in Algeria against French occupation. The Baghdad Pact was originally an alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain (America joined the military committee of the alliance in 1958 and Iraq left in 1959 and it became known as CENTO, the Central Treaty Organisation). Date: 13 April 1975 – 13 October 1990 (15 years and 6 months) (Last battle ended on 6 July 1991, Syrian occupation ended on 30 April 2005) Location This intervention scuppered the planned adherence of Jordan, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia (although Turkey and Iraq did join). Nasser had been opposed to the Baghdad Pact, a pro-Western alliance created in 1955 that included Britain, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran of Shah Pahlavi. Nasser's pragmatism towards Jordan meant that he aimed to force the Jordan regime to decline to join the pact, but he did … In the late 1950s, the regime was part of the western-backed Baghdad pact that opposed the Nasser government in Egypt. (ibid, p. 6) Foster Dulles counted this against Nasser. ), political union of Egypt and Syria proclaimed on February 1, 1958, and ratified in plebiscites later that month. Nasser opposed the Baghdad Pact, supported the Algerian war of independence, and linked up with India in pushing a global movement of the nonaligned nations that would accept aid … This central Asian treaty defended imperialist interests in Iran, Iraq and elsewhere in the Middle East. In the Cold War, Nasser wanted to follow a policy of non-alignment, meaning that he did not want to side with either the US or the Soviet Union. The three Asian-Moslem members of the Pact—Turkey, Iran and Pakistan—were represented by their Prime Ministers, who had been in a state of considerable gloom as a result of the coup in Iraq. BAGHDAD PACT, popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.At the height of the Cold War, the Middle East, with strategic bases bordering the Soviet Union, vital communications links, and significant oil wealth, represented a valuable region for Western interests. By the mid-1950s, Nasser was far more popular in Baghdad than the Iraqi government and single-mindedly hostile to the pro-British regime. The US was not a member, but Secretary of State Dulles had helped organize it and was allied with Turkey and Pakistan from which it could fly aircraft into the Soviet Union. [7] Thus Britain’s influence in the region, its military bases in Egypt, Jordan and Iraq, as well as the Baghdad Pact, were all important to Britain. 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