Other great civilizations surrounded the Greek civilization, including the Egyptians to the south, the Romans to the west, and the Persians to the east. The Greeks used the seas as transportation routes. Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. Ionian Sea to the West of Greece in btw. It divided the country into a large number of isolated cantons where small independent states developed, leading to the emergence of republics such as Athens, Sparta, and Thebes. Today, that city is referred to as Ancient Thera. The contestants, artists or athletes, competed for the prize of a pine and olive crown. The Homeric period is dubbed the Heroic Age due to the poems attributed to Homer, the Iliad, and Odyssey, which give us an albeit legendary image of Archaic Greek history. Archaeological evidence, based on the established chronology of Bronze Age Mediterranean cultures, dates the eruption to around 1500 BC. Bond, A. and Sparks, R. S. J. They have been formed since the Minoan eruption, and the first of them broke the surface of the sea in 197 BC. 750 .C. It forms the southernmost member of the Cyclades group of islands, with an area of approximately 73 km2 (28 sq mi) and a 2011 census population of 15,550. The documentary presents this date as corresponding to the time of the Biblical Moses. It's the largest island of a small, circular archipelago, which bears the same name and is the remnant of a volcanic caldera.  The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep. Lava flows and small explosive eruptions build up cones, which are thought to impede the flow of magma to the surface. , The island was the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history: the Minoan eruption (sometimes called the Thera eruption), which occurred about 3,600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization. IV. The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water.  The most famous eruption is the Minoan eruption, detailed below. The Aegean Sea is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas. It is a wonderful method to get to the core of Ancient Greek culture: a fascinating dive into a magical sea of myths. During this dark and blurred period, indigenous and foreign cultural elements fused due to invasions and the later Greek historical states were formed. The town also had a highly developed drainage system and, judging from the fine artwork, its citizens were clearly sophisticated and relatively wealthy people. Based on the maps in this lesson and the descriptions below. Every four years, Greeks from the most distant towns concentrated in the city with the same name, forgetting their wars and problems for five days, maintaining a strict truce. Only the southern tip of a large town has been uncovered, yet it has revealed complexes of multi-level buildings, streets, and squares with remains of walls standing as high as eight metres, all entombed in the solidified ash of the famous eruption of Thera. No impure acts were permitted before it. The Odyssey is an epic poem consisting of 24 cantos, through which the author tells the hardships that Ulysses or Odysseus went through to return to his homeland, Ithaca, following the end of the Trojan War, where his wife, Penelope, and his son Telemachus are waiting for him. When strong earthquakes struck the island in 1956, half the buildings were completely destroyed and a large number suffered repairable damage. The Pharaoh of the Exodus is identified with Ahmose I. Faced with this humiliation, Achilles decided to retire from combat, thus turning the Greek triumphs into successive failures. Hera, wife of Zeus, protector of marriage and birth. The municipality of Santorini includes the inhabited islands of Santorini and Therasia, as well as the uninhabited islands of Nea Kameni, Palaia Kameni, Aspronisi and Christiana. These were the greater gods that all Greeks worshiped. The name Thera was revived in the nineteenth century as the official name of the island and its main city, but the colloquial name Santorini is still in popular use. Summers are warm and winters are mild in the coastal lo… Before the Minoan eruption, the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera; the eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia, and between Therasia and Thera, creating two new channels. In antiquity, it expanded up to Illyria and Macedonia in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the south, the Aegean Sea in the east and the Ionian in the west. This period of Greek culture occurred between the 5th and 4th centuries BC, spanning the events of the Greco-Persian War to Macedonian hegemony, and was the age of Greece’s greatest cultural development, forming the basis of Western culture. From about 750 BC the Greeks began sending out colonies in all directions, settling the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. These were athletic and artistic competitions organized by the amphictyonies as a way of strengthening national solidarity. Its relief has played an important role in the history of the Greek people. The metamorphic grade is a blueschist facies, which results from tectonic deformation by the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. For other uses, see, A volcanic island in the southern Aegean Sea, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The events included the following exercises: single or double running, wrestling, boxing, javelin and discus throwing, pentathlon (jumping, running, wrestling, discus throwing, and javelin) and finally chariot races. These were: language, religion, amphictyonies, and the Panhellenic games. At the same time, they used the occasion to establish a common market and, above all, to forge friendships with their neighbors for the sake of mutual border protection. It’s still untouched by mass tourism, with crystal clear … In the 5th century BC, Dorian Thera did not join the Delian League with Athens; and during the Peloponnesian War, Thera sided with Dorian Sparta, against Athens. The Trojans, believing it to be a reward for their bravery, transported it as a trophy into the inner city and celebrated it with a great party. In the summer season, strong winds can also be observed. It is not easy to be a winegrower in Santorini; the hot and dry conditions give the soil a very low productivity. According to Greek mythology, Anafi emerged from the bottom of the Aegean Sea in order to give shelter to the Argonauts. Probably after what is called the Bronze Age collapse, Phoenicians founded a site on Thera. Greece is quite mountainous, with narrow fertile valleys separated by imposing hills and peaks. The mythical Deucalion (son of the fire-bringing titan Prometheus) was the savior of the human race from the Great Flood, in the same way Noah is presented in the biblical version or Utnapishtim in the Mesopotamian one. area and average elevation)", "Δήμος Θήρας, the official municipal government website", "Municipality of Thira, English language version of the official municipal government website", "Spreadsheet table of all administrative subdivisions in Greece, and their population as of the 18 March 2001 census", "Santorini Eruption (~1630 BC) and the legend of Atlantis", "Ye gods! During the Second World War, Santorini was occupied in 1941 by Italian forces, and in 1943 by those of the Germans. Two of ancient Greece’s great literary works, known as the Homeric poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, are attributed to Homer, a great poet of the ancient world who was also dubbed the blind bard. The death of Patroclus shook Achilles, who in anger returned to the fight and killed Hector, rescuing the body of his friend from the hands of the Trojans. They were all a cause for great enthusiasm and revelry. It was polytheistic as they worshiped many gods. , Santorini was captured briefly by the Russians under Alexey Orlov during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, but returned to Ottoman control after. These games were celebrated in the Isthmus of Corinth in honor of Poseidon. The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for the chronology of the second millennium BC in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region and the site itself contains material culture from outside. Instead, they identified themselves through the similarity of their customs and beliefs, which is why they called themselves Hellenes and called the peoples of other races barbarians. the sea kings of crete and the prehistoric civilization of greece illustrated Nov 16, 2020 Posted By James Patterson Public Library TEXT ID a77afcf8 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library crete and the prehistoric civilization of greece illustrated ebook baikie james amazoncouk kindle store the the sea kings of crete is about the minoan civilization focusing on  This allows the formation of large magma chambers, in which the magma can evolve to more silicic compositions. Learn term:mediterranean+sea = a sea south of greece with free interactive flashcards. He was identified as the sun or light. The sea also influenced the evolution of Greek society, and since they were surrounded by water, they became seafarers and established colonies that spread Greek civilization throughout the Mediterranean world. The oceanic crust of the northern margin of the African Plate is being subducted under Greece and the Aegean Sea, which is thinned continental crust. the sea kings of crete and the prehistoric civilization of greece illustrated Nov 14, 2020 Posted By Agatha Christie Public Library TEXT ID 87710756 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library illustrated nov 11 2020 posted by j r r tolkien ltd text id 87710756 online pdf ebook epub library greece illustrated 31102020 by fovi filed under 432 the sea kings of crete American hip hop musician Rick Ross has a song titled Santorini Greece, and its 2017 music video was shot on the island. He was originally from Elis, a place in the western Peloponnese in whose territory Olympia itself is situated. A similar freshwater lake in the Black Sea basin fed by rivers flowing south from Central Europe also existed at this time. The Pythian Games took place in the sanctuary of Delphi in honor of the god Apollo. But it was simplifying its control on all semi - island of Italy , south of what is known now to Florence , and was it in 275 BC .  He writes: "In the same year, in the summer, a vapour like an oven's fire boiled up for days out of the middle of the islands of Thera and Therasia from the depths of the sea, and the whole place burned like fire, little by little thickening and turning to stone, and the air seemed to be a fiery torch." In this poem, Homer describes a portion of the war between the Greeks and the Trojans. After this, he was able to reach his homeland thanks to his cunning, which saved him from the difficulties posed by the adversary Greek gods. They aimed to honor the memory of the fallen patriots who had defended the country against the Persians. These islands were the Cyclades, the Dodecanese, the Ionian Islands, and the Isle of Crete along with southern peninsula of Peloponnese. White wines from the island are extremely dry with a strong, citrus scent and mineral and iodide salt aromas contributed by the ashy volcanic soil, whereas barrel aging gives to some of the white wines a slight frankincense aroma, much like Vinsanto. Choose from 130 different sets of term:mediterranean+sea = a sea south of greece flashcards on Quizlet. Although the volcano is dormant at the present time, at the current active crater (there are several former craters on Nea Kameni), steam and carbon dioxide are given off. The winners were rewarded with an olive crown as a symbol of victory. The present municipality of Thera (officially: "Thira", Greek: Δήμος Θήρας), which covers all settlements on the islands of Santorini and Therasia, was formed at the 2011 local government reform, by the merger of the former Oia and Thera municipalities.. Greece’s climate is varied, with sudden cold spells, as well as torrential autumnal rains.  An estimated 2 million tourists visit annually. On Santorini, a deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption is found lying up to 60 m (200 ft) thick, overlying the soil marking the ground level before the eruption, and forming a layer divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption. These were the most important games for the Greeks and were celebrated in honor of Zeus. Greece is a country of diverse cultures and great interests. Santorini (Greek: Σαντορίνη, pronounced [sandoˈrini]), officially Thira (Greek: Θήρα [ˈθira]) and classic Greek Thera (English pronunciation /ˈθɪərə/), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast from Greece. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Greece and Italy.c. The oldest signs of human settlement are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier), but c. 2000–1650 BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports, with recovered objects that came not just from Crete, but also from Anatolia, Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt, as well as from the Dodecanese and the Greek mainland. Herodotus reports that they called the island Callista and lived on it for eight generations.  For those, and other, reasons, the date of the eruption is disputed. An alternate view takes qe-ra-si-ja and qe-ra-si-jo as proof of androgyny, and applies this name by similar arguments to the legendary seer, Tiresias, but these views are not mutually exclusive. Over the past 360,000 years there have been two major cycles, each culminating with two caldera-forming eruptions. They were usually the children of a god and a mortal, and include: This was what the closest and longest-lasting city-state associations called themselves. The war continued with the Greeks being unable to defeat the Trojans. The project is led by Colin Renfrew and Michael Boyd and has found ‘the earliest truly monumental complex of buildings ever unearthed anywhere in the Greek world’ reports The Independent . It matures to a sweet, dark amber-orange, unctuous dessert wine that has achieved worldwide fame, possessing the standard Assyrtiko aromas of citrus and minerals, layered with overtones of nuts, raisins, figs, honey and tea.  In 1318–1331 and 1345–1360 it was raided by the Turkish principalities of Menteshe and Aydın, but did not suffer much damage. Ancient Greek civilization - Ancient Greek civilization - The later Archaic periods: Dealings with opulent Asian civilizations were bound to produce disparities in wealth, and hence social conflicts, within the aristocracies of Greece. The Mediterranean Sea forms its northern border, which extends to the Straits of Gibraltar. It was a period of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific achievements that formed a legacy with unparalleled influence on Western civilization. Special Deposit South on Keros, with Dhaskalio in the background. The Greek Dark Ages (c. 1100 – c. 800 BC) refers to the period of Greek history from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean civilization in the 11th century BC to the rise of the first Greek city-states in the 9th century BC and the epics of Homer and earliest writings in the Greek … 1280 when it was reconquered by Licario (the claims of earlier historians that the island had been held by Jacopo I Barozzi and his son as a fief have been refuted in the second half of the twentieth century); it was again reconquered from the Byzantines ca. Deucalion and Pyrrha repopulate the land once t… One function of institutions such as guest-friendship was no doubt to ensure the maintenance of the charmed circle of social and economic privilege. the sea kings of crete and the prehistoric civilization of greece illustrated Nov 16, 2020 Posted By James Patterson Public Library TEXT ID a77afcf8 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library crete and the prehistoric civilization of greece illustrated ebook baikie james amazoncouk kindle store the the sea kings of crete is about the minoan civilization focusing on This age lasted between the 4th and 1st centuries BC and spans the events from the death of Alexander the Great to the Roman conquest of Greece. In approximately the 6th century BC, the tyrant of Athens, Pisistratus, ordered the compilation of Homer’s poems, which are considered a universal literary jewel. Features scientists Dr. J. Alexander MacGillivray (archeologist), Dr. Colin F. MacDonald (archaeologist), Professor Floyd McCoy (vulcanologist), Professor Clairy Palyvou (architect), Nahid Humbetli (geologist) and Dr. Gerassimos Papadopoulos (. Which description best fits each letter? Only to the north and northeast does it have land borders (totaling some 735 miles [1,180 km]), with, from west to east, Albania, the Republic of North Macedonia ( see Researcher’s Note: Macedonia: the provenance of the name ), Bulgaria, and Turkey. The Athenians took the island during the war, but lost it again after the Battle of Aegospotami. Daskalio has been the subject of intense archaeological investigations since … The large sea that is SOUTH of Greece. The Dorians have left a number of inscriptions incised in stone, in the vicinity of the temple of Apollo, attesting to pederastic relations between the authors and their lovers (eromenoi).  These are geochemically distinct from the later volcanism, as they contain amphiboles. Greece in Europe. Government - Government - Greece: The Phoenician example was followed by the Greeks, originally Indo-European nomads who gradually made their way south to the Aegean and there took to the sea.  It became part of the semi-autonomous domain of the Sultan's Jewish favourite, Joseph Nasi.  The pipes run in twin systems, indicating that Therans used both hot and cold water supplies; the origin of the hot water probably was geothermic, given the volcano's proximity. Heracles, later known as Hercules, possessed an extraordinary force. She was the moon, the goddess of night. "—Emilio Suárez de la Torre, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain A 2006 documentary film by Simcha Jacobovici, The Exodus Decoded, postulates that the eruption of the Santorini Island volcano (referred to as c. 1500 BC) caused all the biblical plagues described against Egypt. The subduction compels the formation of the Hellenic arc, which includes Santorini and other volcanic centres, such as Methana, Milos, and Kos.. The poem ends with the Trojan chief’s funeral, whose corpse was dragged along the walls of Troy, and then delivered to Hector’s father and the King of Troy, Priam, by Achilles. It may have led indirectly to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete, 110 km (68 mi) to the south, through a gigantic tsunami. He was a defender of good and justice. Santorini Film Festival held annually at the open air cinema, Cinema Kamari in Santorini.. "Thera" redirects here. Certainly not from any contemporary Egyptian sources, which were good record keepers, being one of the only known sources of what the Minoans who inhabited Santorini for thousands of years called themselves. Generally, it has a temperate climate thanks to its seas, which allowed its inhabitants to live outdoors under a bright and clear sky. Among the main Panhellenic or universal gods are: Like other ancient peoples, the Greeks believed that a person’s life did not end with death. Greater Athens has an area of 165 square miles (427 square km). The Aegean Sea is east of Greece. Thus the Minoan civilization began to develop. Rather than crossing the Red Sea, Jacobovici argues a marshy area in northern Egypt known as the Reed Sea would have been alternately drained and flooded by tsunamis caused by the caldera collapse, and could have been crossed during the Exodus. The Trojans were taken by great surprise and finally, after a great battle, the Greeks seized Troy and recovered the captive Helen. Aegean Sea is to the East of Greece.b. In the east Greece borders with Turkey (and the Aegean sea) In the south and west Greece is surrounded by the Mediterranean sea (the Ionian sea is west, and the Libyan sea to the south) Coordinates It can accommodate Boeing 757, Boeing 737, Airbus 320 series, Avro RJ, Fokker 70, and ATR 72 aircraft. It is the most active volcanic centre in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, though what remains today is chiefly a water-filled caldera. Greece is a south-eastern European nation that is sometimes called the cradle of Western civilization.The country is bordered by four nations namely Bulgaria, Albania, Turkey, and North Macedonia. "The Minoan eruption of Santorini, Greece". Homer lived at the end of these “Greek Dark Ages” he composed stories (epics) of the Trojan War c. 750-700 BCE. The Sea and Civilization is a mesmerizing, rhapsodic narrative of maritime enterprise, from the origins of long-distance migration to the great seafaring cultures of antiquity; from Song Dynasty human-powered paddle-boats to aircraft carriers and container ships. Santorini retained its privileged position in the 17th century, but suffered in turn from Venetian raids during the frequent Ottoman–Venetian wars of the period, even though there were no Muslims on the island. Greek islands are among 12 destinations that according to British newspaper The Mirror should be added to everyone’s dream list of travel experiences for 2021. These seas made Greece a crossroads for trade.e. It has been filled several times by ignimbrite since then, and the process repeated itself, most recently 21,000 years ago. Another popular theory holds that the Thera eruption is the source of the legend of Atlantis.. Minoan civilization collapses 1100 B.C. Greece’s terrain is rugged due to its mountain ranges, creating deep and narrow valleys that divide the country and benefits political division. Later in the heat of battle, Paris fired a poisoned arrow that wounded Achilles in his heel, his only weak spot, killing him. They dwelt in Mount Olympus (a Greek mountain 2919 meters high).  Scientists say that the injection of molten rock was equivalent to 20 years’ worth of regular activity. Apollo, god of truth and protector of the fine arts. Ancient Greece had powerful cities, great thinkers called philosophers, and fine art. Each city, with its small territory and population, constituted a nation; the rivalries between them usually ended in wars and constant anguish. "Therasia" and its ethnikon "Therasios" are both attested in later Greek; and, since -sos was itself a genitive suffix in the Aegean Sprachbund, *Qeras[os] could also shrink to *Qera. The dual pipe system, the advanced architecture, and the apparent layout of the Akrotiri find resemble Plato's description of the legendary lost city of Atlantis, further indicating the Minoans as the culture which primarily inspired the Atlantis legend.. In 1944, the German and Italian garrison on Santorini was raided by a group of British Special Boat Service Commandos, killing most of its men. Greek oral tradition - stories passed on by word of mouth. The well preserved ruins of the ancient town are often compared to the spectacular ruins at Pompeii in Italy. If the endings -ia[s] and -ios represent an ethnic suffix, then this means "The One From Qeras[os]". The Greeks decided to avenge the affront and declared war on Troy, for which they prepared an army under Agamemnon, which included valiant soldiers, such as Achilles, Ulysses, Patroclus, Ajax, among others. There were four main games: the Pythian, the Nemean, the Isthmian and the Olympic games. In his Argonautica, written in Hellenistic Egypt in the 3rd century BC, Apollonius Rhodius includes an origin and sovereignty myth of Thera being given by Triton in Libya to the Greek Argonaut Euphemus, son of Poseidon, in the form of a clod of dirt. It may have been one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth in the last few thousand years, with an estimated VEI (volcanic explosivity index) of 6 according to the last studies published in 2006, confirming the prior values. , The island's pumice quarries have been closed since 1986, in order to preserve the caldera. Photo by Anemos2000 – Own Work. Other than the Bible, there is no historic evidence of any Jewish exodus from Egypt. These "highways of water" linked most parts of Greece to each other. After carrying the dirt next to his heart for several days, Euphemus dreamt that he nursed the dirt with milk from his breast, and that the dirt turned into a beautiful woman with whom he had sex. Required fields are marked *. Ancient Greek civilization, the period following Mycenaean civilization, which ended about 1200 BCE, to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BCE. This was why the Greeks resorted to building a huge wooden horse containing their most courageous warriors, leaving it on the battlefield, and then pretending to retreat. It was anthropomorphic because the Greeks were certain that their gods were human in form, and had the same passions, virtues, and faults as men. Ancient volcano could have blasted Atlantis myth", "Santorini Bulges as Magma Balloons Underneath", "Santorini information, traditional products, beaches, volcano and villages, Attractions, Events – Santorini holidays 2014", "Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700–1400 B.C. These non-volcanic rocks are exposed at Mikro Profititis Ilias, Mesa Vouno, the Gavrillos ridge, Pyrgos, Monolithos, and the inner side of the caldera wall between Cape Plaka and Athinios.  According to George Cedrenus, the volcano erupted again in the summer of 727, the tenth year of the reign of Leo III the Isaurian.  In a 2013 book on this connection, Thera and the Exodus, a dissident from the consensus Riaan Booysen, tries to support Jacobovici's theory and claims the pharaoh of the Exodus to be Amenhotep III and the biblical Moses as Crown Prince Thutmose, Amenhotep's first-born son and heir to his throne. The civilization is named for king Minos, the legendry ruler of Greece. In 1707 an undersea volcano breached the sea surface, forming the current centre of activity at Nea Kameni in the centre of the lagoon, and eruptions centred on it continue—the twentieth century saw three such, the last in 1950. Like Chalcis, which supervised sea traffic between southern Greece and Macedonia but also had close links with Boeotia and Attica, Corinth controlled both a north-south route (the Isthmus of Corinth, in modern times pierced by the Corinth Canal) and an east-west route. By about 1450 B.C. This group later claimed that they had named the city and the island after their leader, Theras. The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera around 1600 B.C. The volcanic arc is approximately 500 km (310 mi) long and 20 to 40 km (12 to 25 mi) wide. She symbolizes intelligence and reason. civilization flourishes on Crete 2000 B.C. Greece occupies a large, wide peninsula which juts south from the Balkans into the Eastern Mediterranean, between the Ionian Sea and the Aegean. Speculation suggesting that Thera/Santorini was the inspiration for Plato's Atlantis began with the excavation of Akrotiri in the 1960s, and gained increased currency as reconstructions of the island's pre-eruption shape and landscape frescos located under the ash both strongly resembled Plato's description. Scheduled airlines include the new Olympic Air, Aegean Airlines, and Ryanair, with chartered flights from other airlines during the summer, and with transportation to and from the air terminal available through buses, taxis, hotel car-pickups and rental cars. At Knossos, in a LMIIIA context (14th century BC), seven Linear B texts while calling upon "all the gods" make sure to grant primacy to an elsewhere-unattested entity called qe-ra-si-ja and, once, qe-ra-si-jo. 2000 B.C.1500 B.C. The eruption occurred during the "Late Minoan IA" period at Crete and the "Late Cycladic I" period in the surrounding islands.  Santorini is part of the Thira regional unit. Poseidon, brother of Zeus, god of the sea and storms. The settlement, which dates back approximately 4,500 years, covers an area of 12 acres and consists of stone defensive structures, paved surfaces, pathways, towers, pottery, tools, and other artifacts.  Tour boats depart from Skala for Nea Kameni and other Santorini destinations.. Later Achaeans spread throughout the peninsula. Oia is now called a Κοινότητα (community), within the municipality of Thera, and it consists of the local subdivisions (Greek: τοπικό διαμέρισμα) of Therasia and Oia. Santorini's primary industry is tourism. For discussion, see Minoan eruption#Eruption dating. The people of Crete probably came from eastern Asia before 3000 B.C.